In recent times, scientific findings on cellular senescence have made headlines. The majority of these highly publicized articles are concerned with the potential health benefits of removing senescent cells from our bodies. Destroying senescent cells in mice can reverse aspects of aging and prevent side effects in response to chemotherapy.
The term “senescence” regarding cells was first used over fifty years ago to describe cells that could no longer proliferate after extended time in culture. Without our current understandings, this inability to proliferate was thought to be due to processes related to cell aging and so such cells were labeled as “senescent”. Although now inaccurate, this labeling is still in use today.
So what's the difference between cell “aging” and “senescence”?
Telomere shortening: adding further to the confusion
Peptides – The New Scientific Frontier
One of the most studied peptide is Epitalon (actually it's a tetrapeptide, with a four amino acid chain). Its benefits ignited an entire field of study for health and longevity. Now peptides are being studied in vast areas in science and medicine.
A peptide is defined as two or more bonded amino acids. Peptides are precursors to proteins, which require at least 50 bonded amino acids. In addition to performing a host of essential functions in the body, peptides may have formed the basis for cellular life on Earth.
Peptides occur naturally in every cell of every living thing. They have a number of functions, including the production of enzymes to help your body break down foreign substances, and create antibiotics for your immune system and hormones that control everything from growth to sexual development. Without peptides, life would not be possible.
Studies show that Epitalon not only reactivates telomerase and thus extends a cell's life, but that it also reduces rates of DNA mutation, prevents degradation of immune function, promotes the health of the intestinal mucosa, and protects nerves from damage in rodent models. In other words, epitalon extends both lifespan and healthspan (the number of years without disease or disability).
|1.||↑||Khavinson VK, Bondarev IE, Butyugov AA. Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity & telomere elongation in human somatic cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Jun;135(6):590-2.|
|2.||↑||Hekimi S, Lapointe J, Wen Y. Taking a “good” look at free radicals in the aging process. Trends In Cell Biology. 2011;21(10) 569-76.|
|3.||↑||Anisimov VN, Arutjunyan AV, Khavinson VK. Effects of pineal peptide preparation Epithalamin on free-radical processes in humans and animals. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2001;22(1):9-18.|
|4.||↑||Anisimov VN, Khavinson VK, Provinciali M, Alimova IN, Baturin DA, Popovich IG, et al. Inhibitory effect of the peptide epitalon on the development of spontaneous mammary tumours in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. Int J Cancer. 2002 Sep 1;101(1):7-10.|
|5.||↑||Anisimov VN, Khavinson VK, Popovich IG, Zabezhinski MA. Inhibitory effect of peptide Epitalon on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Cancer Lett. 2002 Sep 8;183(1):1-8.|
|6.||↑||Kossoy G, Zandbank J, Tendler E, Anisimov V, Khavinson V, Popovich I, et al. Epitalon and colon carcinogenesis in rats: proliferative activity & apoptosis in colon tumors & mucosa. Int J Mol Med. 2003 Oct;12(4):473-7.|